Salinity gradient energy conversion by custom-made interpolymer ion exchange membranes utilized in reverse electrodialysis system

Altıok, Esra
Kaya, Tuğçe Zeynep
Smolinska-Kempisty, Katarzyna
Güler, Enver
Kabay, Nalan
Tomaszewska, Barbara
Bryjak, Marek
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Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of methods to extract salinity gradient energy between two aqueous solutions with different salt concentrations. In this work, custom-made interpolymer ion exchange membranes were employed in the RED stack. The effects of divalent (Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42-) and monovalent (Li+, K+ and Cl-) ions in the feed solutions prepared from NaCl salt as a function of such process parameters as number of membrane pairs, flow rate, and salinity ratio on power generation by the RED method were studied. It was shown that the maximum power density of 0.561 W/m2 was reached by using three membrane pairs using 1:45 of salt ratio with a feed flow rate of 120 mL/min using only NaCl salt in the feed solutions. The maximum power density was 0.398 W/m2 at 120 mL/min of the flow rate of the feed solutions composed of 90 wt% NaCl and 10 wt% KCl by using a salt ratio of 1:30 while the lowest power density of 0.246 W/m2 was obtained with a feed flow rate of 30 mL/min in the presence of SO42- ions with a similar salt ratio. Consequently, it was seen that while the presence of divalent ions in NaCl solutions had negative impact on power generation by RED system, the addition of monovalent ions having smaller hydrated radius than that of the Na+ ions contributed positively to the power generation.
Published by Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering;; Esra Altıok, Tuğçe Zeynep Kaya, Nalan Kabay, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, 35100 Izmir, Turkey; Katarzyna Smolinska-Kempisty, Marek Bryjak, Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Process Engineering and Technology of Polymer and Carbon Materials, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland; Enver Güler, Atılım University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06830 Ankara, Turkey; Barbara Tomaszewska, AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection Department of Fossil Fuels, 30-059 Cracow, Poland.
Blue energy; Interpolymer ion exchange membrane, Reverse electrodialysis (RED); Salinity gradient energy