Gendered Self-Views Across 62 Countries: A Test of Competing Models

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Date
2023-09-01
Authors
Kosakowska-Berezecka, Natasza
Bosson, Jennifer K.
Jurek, Paweł
Besta, Tomasz
Olech, Michał
Vandello, Joseph A.
Bender, Michael
Dandy, Justine
Hoorens, Vera
Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
Social Psychological and Personality Science
Abstract
Social role theory posits that binary gender gaps in agency and communion should be larger in less egalitarian countries, reflecting these countries’ more pronounced sex-based power divisions. Conversely, evolutionary and self-construal theorists suggest that gender gaps in agency and communion should be larger in more egalitarian countries, reflecting the greater autonomy support and flexible self-construction processes present in these countries. Using data from 62 countries (N = 28,640) we examine binary gender gaps in agentic and communal self-views as a function of country-level objective gender equality (the Global Gender Gap Index) and subjective distributions of social power (the Power Distance Index). Findings show that in more egalitarian countries, gender gaps in agency are smaller, and gender gaps in communality are larger. These patterns are driven primarily by cross-country differences in men’s self-views, and by the PDI more robustly than the GGGI. We consider possible causes and implications of these findings.
Description
Open Access; Published by Social Psychological and Personality Science; https://doi.org/10.1177/19485506221129687; Natasza Kosakowska-Berezecka1, Jennifer K. Bosson2, Paweł Jurek1, Tomasz Besta1, Michał Olech3, Joseph A. Vandello2, Michael Bender4, Justine Dandy5, Vera Hoorens6, Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti7, Eric Mankowski8, Satu Venäläinen7, Sami Abuhamdeh9, Collins Badu Agyemang10, Gülçin Akbaş11, Nihan Albayrak-Aydemir12,13, Soline Ammirati14, Joel Anderson15,16, Gulnaz Anjum17, Amarina Ariyanto18, John Jamir Benzon R. Aruta19,20, Mujeeba Ashraf21, Aistė Bakaitytė22, Maja Becker23, Chiara Bertolli24, Dashamir Bërxulli25, Deborah L. Best26, Chongzeng Bi27, Katharina Block28, Mandy Boehnke29, Renata Bongiorno30, Janine Bosak31, Annalisa Casini32, Qingwei Chen33, Peilian Chi34, Vera Cubela Adoric35, Serena Daalmans36, Soledad de Lemus37, Sandesh Dhakal38, Nikolay Dvorianchikov39, Sonoko Egami40, Edgardo Etchezahar41, Carla Sofia Esteves42, Laura Froehlich43, Efrain Garcia- Sanchez37, Alin Gavreliuc44, Dana Gavreliuc44, Ángel Gomez45, Francesca Guizzo46, Sylvie Graf47, Hedy Greijdanus48, Ani Grigoryan49, Joanna Grzymała-Moszczyńska50, Keltouma Guerch51,52, Marie Gustafsson Sendén53, Miriam-Linnea Hale54, Hannah Hämer55, Mika Hirai56, Lam Hoang Duc57, Martina Hřebíčková47, Paul B. Hutchings58, Dorthe Høj Jensen59, Serdar Karabati60, Kaltrina Kelmendi25, Gabriella Kengyel61, Narine Khachatryan49, Rawan Ghazzawi4, Mary Kinahan62, Teri A. Kirby63, Monika Kovacs64, Desiree Kozlowski65, Vladislav Krivoshchekov66, Kuba Kryś67, Clara Kulich68, Tai Kurosawa69, Nhan Thi Lac An70, Javier Labarthe-Carrara71, Mary Anne Lauri72, Ioana Latu73, Abiodun Musbau Lawal74, Junyi Li75, Jana Lindner76, Anna Lindqvist77, Angela T. Maitner78, Elena Makarova76, Ana Makashvili79, Shera Malayeri66, Sadia Malik80, Tiziana Mancini81, Claudia Manzi82, Silvia Mari83, Sarah E. Martiny84, Claude-Hélène Mayer85, Vladimir Mihić86, Jasna Milošević Đorđević87, Eva Moreno-Bella88, Silvia Moscatelli89, Andrew Bryan Moynihan90, Dominique Muller91, Erita Narhetali92, Félix Neto93, Kimberly A. Noels94, Boglárka Nyúl64, Emma C. O’Connor8, Danielle P. Ochoa95, Sachiko Ohno96, Sulaiman Olanrewaju Adebayo97, Randall Osborne98, Maria Giuseppina Pacilli99, Jorge Palacio100, Snigdha Patnaik101, Vassilis Pavlopoulos102, Pablo Pérez de León71, Ivana Piterová103, Juliana Barreiros Porto55, Angelica Puzio125, Joanna Pyrkosz-Pacyna105, Erico Rentería Pérez106, Emma Renström107, Tiphaine Rousseaux23, Michelle K. Ryan48,108, Saba Safdar109, Mario Sainz110, Marco Salvati111, Adil Samekin112, Simon Schindler113, A. Timur Sevincer114, Masoumeh Seydi66, Debra Shepherd115, Sara Sherbaji78,116, Toni Schmader117, Cláudia Simão118, Rosita Sobhie119, Jurand Sobiecki1, Lucille De Souza117, Emma Sarter33, Dijana Sulejmanović120, Katie E. Sullivan58, Mariko Tatsumi121, Lucy Tavitian-Elmadjian122, Suparna Jain Thakur123, Quang Thi Mong Chi57, Beatriz Torre95, Ana Torres124, Claudio V. Torres55, Beril Türkoğlu126, Joaquín Ungaretti41, Timothy Valshtein104, Colette Van Laar6, Jolanda van der Noll43, Vadym Vasiutynskyi127, Christin-Melanie Vauclair128, Neharika Vohra129, Marta Walentynowicz32, Colleen Ward130, Anna Włodarczyk131, Yaping Yang132, Vincent Yzerbyt32, Valeska Zanello55, Antonella Ludmila Zapata-Calvente37, Magdalena Zawisza133, Rita Žukauskienė22, Magdalena Żadkowska1 ; University of Gdańsk, Poland 2University of South Florida, Tampa, USA 3Medical University of Gdan´sk, Poland 4Tilburg University, The Netherlands 5Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia 6University of Leuven, Belgium 7University of Helsinki, Finland 8Portland State University, OR, USA 9Istanbul Sehir University, Istanbul, Turkey 10University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana 11Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey 12London School of Economics and Political Science, UK 13The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK 14Université Grenoble Alpes, France 15Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 16La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 17University of Oslo, Norway 18University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia 19De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines 20Sunway University, Malaysia 21University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan 22Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania 23CLLE, Université de Toulouse, France 24University of Padova, Italy 25University of Prishtina, Kosovo 26Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA 27Southwest University, El Paso, TX, USA 28University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands 29University of Bremen, Germany 30University of Exeter, UK 31Business School Dublin City University, Ireland 32Université Catholique de Louvain, Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium 33South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China 34University of Macau, China 35University of Zadar, Croatia 36Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands 37University of Granada, Spain 38Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal 39Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia 40Shiraume Gakuen University, Kodaira, Japan 41University of Buenos Aires, Argentina 42Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Católica Lisbon School of Business and Economics, Portugal 43Fern Universität in Hagen, Germany 44West University of Timisoara, Romania 45Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain 46University of Surrey, Guildford, UK 47Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic 48University of Groningen, The Netherlands 49Yerevan State University, Armenia 50Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland 51Mohamed I University, Oujda, Morocco 52Centre Régional des Métiers de l’Education et de la Formation de l’Oriental, Oujda, Morocco 53Stockholm University, Sweden 54University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg 55University of Brasília, Brazil 56Yokohama City University, Japan 57Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 58University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Lampeter, UK 59Aarhus University, Denmark 60Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey 61Pazmany Peter Catholic University, Budapest, Hungary 62Technological University Dublin, Ireland 63Purde University, West Lafayette, IN, USA 64Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary 65Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia 66University of Bern, Switzerland 67Institute of Psychology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland 68University of Geneva, Switzerland 69Ibaraki Christian University, Hitachi, Japan 70University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 71Universidad Cato´lica del Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay 72University of Malta, Msida, Malta 73Queen’s University Belfast, UK 74Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria 75Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China 76University of Basel, Switzerland 77Lund University, Sweden 78American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 79Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia 80University of Sargodha, Pakistan 81University of Parma, Italy 82Catholic University of Milan, Italy 83University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy 84UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway 85University of Johannesburg, South Africa 86University of Novi Sad, Serbia 87Singidunum University, Belgrade, Serbia 88University of Cordoba, Spain 89University of Bologna, Italy 90University of Limerick, Ireland 91Universite´ Grenoble Alpes, France 92Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia 93Universidade do Porto, Portugal 94University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada 95University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines 96Shirayuri University, Chofu, Japan 97Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria 98Texas State University, San Marcos, USA 99University of Perugia, Italy 100Universidad del Norte, Colombia, Barranquilla, Colombia 101Xavier University of Bhubaneswar, India 102National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece 103Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia 104Harvard University, USA 105AGH University of Science and Technology, Krako´w, Poland 106University of Valle, Cali, Colombia 107Kristianstad University, Sweden 108The Australian National University, Australia 109University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada 110Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile 111University of Verona, Italy 112School of Liberal Arts, M. Narikbayev KAZGUU University, Astana, Kazakhstan 113University of Kassel, Germany 114University of Hamburg, Germany 115Stellenbosch University, South Africa 116University College London, UK 117The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada 118Católica Lisbon School of Business & Economics, Portugal 119Universiteit van Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname 120University of Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina 121Osaka Metropolitan University, Japan 122Haigazian University, Beirut, Lebanon 123University of Delhi, New Delhi, India 124Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil 125New York University, USA 126TED University, Turkey 127National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine 128Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS, Lisboa, Portugal 129Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India 130Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand 131Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile 132Ningbo University, China 133Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
Keywords
Communality, agency, self-views, binary sex differences, egalitarianism, gender equality
Citation
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14411/1944